Bronsted lowryBrnsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Although the Arrhenius definitions of acid, base, and acid-base reaction are very useful, an alternate set of definitions is also commonly employed.In this alternate system, called the Brnsted-Lowry system, an
is a proton (H is a proton acceptor, acid-base reaction is a proton transfer.The table below summarizes the definitions of acid and base in the Arrhenius and Brnsted-Lowry systems.
Acid and Base Definitions
System Acid Definition Base Definition Brnsted-Lowry) Donor in Reaction) Acceptor in base
B/L acid acid reacts with the dihydrogen phosphate polyatomic ion, H, in a reversible reaction.In the forward reaction, acetic acid acts as the Brnsted-Lowry acid and dihydrogen phosphate acts as the Brnsted-Lowry base reverse reaction, too, is a Brnsted-Lowry acid-base reaction: an H ion is transferred from H ion (the base).The Brnsted-Lowry base for the forward reaction (H) gains an H, which then acts as a Bronsted-Lowry acid in the reverse reaction and returns the H.
Chemists say that H is the conjugate acid of Hof a molecule or ion is the molecule or ion that forms when one H ion is added.The formulas H represent a , which are molecules or ions that differ by Likewise, the Brnsted-Lowry acid for the forward reaction (HC) loses an Hto form C, which acts as a Bronsted-Lowry base in the reverse reaction and regains the H ion.Chemists say that C is the conjugate base of HC.The of a molecule or ion is the molecule or ion that forms when one HThe formulas HC represent a conjugate acid-base pair.
EXAMPLE - Conjugate Acids:
Write the formula for the conjugate acid of (a) F, (b) , (c) HSO, and (d) CrOIn each case, the formula for the conjugate acid is derived by adding one HHF
HCrOEXAMPLE - Conjugate Bases: Write the formula for the conjugate base of (a) HClOO, and (d) HCOIn each case, the formula for the conjugate base is derived by removing one Hfrom the formulas above.Some substances can act as a Brnsted-Lowry acid in one reaction and a Brnsted-Lowry base in another.
Consider the following net ionic equations for the reaction of dihydrogen phosphate ion with either the acid hydrochloric acid or the strong base ) (aq)
In the first reaction, the dihydrogen phosphate acts as a Brnsted-Lowry base, and in the second reaction, it acts as a Brnsted-Lowry acid.A substance that can act as either a Brnsted-Lowry acid or a Brnsted-Lowry base, depending on the circumstances, is called amphotericThe hydrogen carbonate ion is another example of an amphoteric substance.In the first reaction below, it acts as a Brnsted-Lowry base, and in the second reaction, it acts as a Brnsted-Lowry acid.
HCOO ( both dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen carbonate can be either Brnsted-Lowry acids or bases, neither can be described as a Brnsted-Lowry acid or base except with reference to a specific acid-base reaction.
For this reason, the Arrhenius definitions of acids and bases are the ones used to categorize isolated substances on the stockroom shelf.A substance generates either hydronium ions, hydroxide ions, or neither when added to water, so it is always either an acid, a base, or neutral in the Arrhenius sense.
Hydrogen carbonate is an Arrhenius base because it yields hydroxide ions when added to water.Dihydrogen phosphate is an Arrhenius acid because it generates hydronium ions when added to water.
HCO(aq) Thus, we have two systems for describing acids, bases, and acid-base reactions.
The Brnsted-Lowry system is often used to describe specific acid-base reactions, but the Arrhenius system is used to describe whether isolated substances are acids, bases, or EXAMPLE - Brnsted-Lowry Acids and Bases: Identify the Brnsted-Lowry acid and base for the forward reaction in each of the following equations..
+ ..The HClO ion, so it is the Brnsted-Lowry acid.
The IO in the NaIO gains the H ion, so the NaIO is the Brnsted-Lowry base.
.The HF loses an H ion, so it is the Brnsted-Lowry acid.The HS gains the Hso it is the Brnsted-Lowry base.c.The HS ion, so it is the Brnsted-Lowry acid.The OH gains the Hso it is the Brnsted-Lowry base.d.The H loses three H ions, so it is the Brnsted-Lowry acid.
Brønsted-lowry Acids And Bases
Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Although the Arrhenius definitions of acid, base, and acid-base reaction are very useful, an alternate set of definitions is also ... (bama.ua.edu)
Naming Compounds - Germanna Community College, …
name Iron (III) oxide, we can determine that the iron will have a subscript of 2, because the charge on oxygen ion is -2; the oxygen will have a subscript of 3 ... (mpcfaculty.net)
General Chemistry I Exam 2 Review - Austin Community College ...
Determine the oxidation number of the underlined element in . a. +1 d. +4 b. +2 e. +5 c. +3 ____ 55. What ... Formula Name a. Cl 2O 7 dichlorine heptoxide b. As 4O (germanna.edu)
Each OHNaOH gains an H ion, so the NaOH is the Brnsted-Lowry base..
Naming compoundsProvided by Tutoring Services 2 Naming Compounds
(same charge, but one less
are added to the names of oxyanions to show the addition or subtraction Per-indicates the addition of one oxygen to the the subtraction of one oxygen from the chlor (one more oxygen than regular form)
(one less oxygen than regular form)
(two less oxygen than regular form) Anions formed by adding H+ to an oxyanion have the word hydrogen in front of their names (or dihydrogen, if two hydrogens are present.) Examples: COthe negative charge by one).POdihydrogen phosphate.
The name of an ionic compound is always the cation name followed = calcium chloride; Al(NOIf you are dealing with an oxyanion, be sure you have the right name
the charge on an ion, look at that the charge on the copper ion is +2 because the subscript on the opposite ion, the perchlorate, is 2, and copper is a metal, so it always has a positive charge.The charge on the perchlorate is -1 because the subscript on the copper is 1 (subscripts of 1 are not written in formulas- thus, because the copper has no written subscript, we know that it is 1), and perchlorate is an anion, so it always has a negative charge.You can use this same method to determine the correct subscript when you are writing a chemical formula based on a name.Example: write the formula for magnesium bromide.This is a compound , and Br determine what subscripts, if any, to use, look at the opposite Provided by Tutoring Services 4 Naming Compounds mono- is never used with the first element.If only
one atom of the first element is present, do not use a prefix.Part Three: Naming Acids
Identifying Acidss are easy to recognize- they are composed of hydrogen and an anion (the hydrogen always comes first), and they have no charge.are acids; they are made up of hydrogen and anions, and they do a charge, and so it is a polyatomic ion.
Acids based on anions whose names end in ide becomes an acid, its name hydro- acid.
Shydrogen ions, which have a charge of 1+, to cancel out the charge on the sulfide.Acids based on anions whose names in
(as in perchlorate), it will retain that prefix, and will be suffix changes to prefix, and will be chlor) becomes HClOProvided by Tutoring Services 5 Naming ( (perchloric acid,
anion (hypochlorite, )
acid ) Provided by Tutoring Services 6 Naming Compounds Name the following ionic compounds:Br
Now go the other way- give the formulas for the following names: 17.Potassium sulfide
26.Magnesium iodide 19.Nickel (II) perchlorate
Iron (III) carbonate 20.Magnesium sulfate
Sodium hypobromite 21.Silver (I) sulfide
Cobalt (II) nitrate Lead (II) nitrate
30.Chromium (II) acetate Copper (I) oxide
31.Copper (II) perchlorate Aluminum hydroxide
32.Calcium hydrogen carbonate Disulfur dichloride Sulfur hexafluoride
Provided by Tutoring Services 8 Naming Compounds Answer Key- Ionic Compounds Names from formulas: Ammonium bromide
9.Copper (II) nitrate Chromium (III) oxide
Barium perchlorate Cobalt (II) nitrate
11.Lithium phosphate Potassium sulfate
Mercury (I) sulfide Barium hydroxide
13.Chromium (III) carbonate
Iron (III) chloride
14.Potassium chromate Aluminum fluoride
15.Ammonium sulfate Iron (II) hydroxide
16.Calcium acetate S
Names from formulas: Sulfur dioxide Phosphorus pentachloride Iodine pentafluoride Boron trifluoride Arsenic trichloride.
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