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Chapter 3 ARMY TACTICAL COMMAND, CONTROL
AND COMMUNICATIONS ENVIRONMENT The issues discussed in Chapters 4,of the constraints imposed by the tactical command, control and communications environment.An overview of this communications environment is described in the present chapter, based on an Army command and control structure.Marine forces deployed ashore tend to be smaller in size, but face most of the same challenges when employing land based radio systems to coordinate their actions on the ground.3.1 MILITARY COMMAND AND Command and control systems must support three types of relationships: command, support and proximity.
The following extract is taken from Command relationships exist whenever one unit or formation commander is a direct subordinate of another Command requires a rich bi-directional exchange of information between the higher headquarters and the subordinate headquarters.The purpose of this exchange is to pass command information (plans, orders, task organization, battlefield geometry, alerts, warnings and status) between the two headquarters.
This type of information exchange follows the parent-child relationship.The superior (parent) headquarters supplies directive information to the subordinate (child) headquarters higher to lower; the subordinate (child) headquarters provides status information to the superior (parent) headquarters lower to higher.Support relationships are a particular type of command relationship.Support relationships are established when one organization must aid, protect, complement or sustain another force.In the context of Command and Control (but not, for example, fire control) these organizations have the command relationship.Support relationships are of two types: Direct Support and General Support.
Proximity relationships exist when units with no direct command or support relationship are operating in proximity to each other and must exchange non-command information in order to establish and maintain situational awareness.Examples of this type of relationship could be the flank coordination of adjacent tank and infantry battalions or the forward passage of lines of an armoured regiment through a mechanized infantry battle group.In proximity relationships, information flows horizontally between the headquarters of the units involved as peers, not parents/children.Units involved in proximity relationships may be subordinate to different higher The military command and control structure is hierarchical (Figure 3-1).
A headquarters at a certain command level will be parent of one or more subordinate headquarters, and will itself be subordinate (child) to a higher headquarters.The communication infrastructure and flow of information over that infrastructure reflects this command hierarchy.
A commander at a given level will generally be required to maintain information from
down in the command hierarchy, as well as from flanking formations with which he has a proximity relationship.ARMY TACTICAL COMMAND, CONTROL AND COMMUNICATIONS ENVIRONMENT RTO-TR-IST-030
Brigade Battalion Company xFigure 3-1: A Typical Hierarchy of Command Headquarters.
COMMAND AND CONTROL COMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE The command and control communications infrastructure is generally organized as a series of hierarchical subnetworks
.A brigade command subnet will include a node at each of the three battalion headquarters under the brigades command.A battalion command subnet may have a dozen or more nodes, but will include a node at each of the three company command posts under the battalions command.Links from battalion headquarters to brigade or higher headquarters are typically provided by relatively reliable and high ng wire or wideband microwave links.The Task Group focused its attention on the Army battlefield environment forward of a battle group or battalionin which all communication occurs between mobile nodes equipped with a combat net radio operating in either the Very High Frequency (VHF) or Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band.A radio subnetwork consists of a set of radios tuned to a common assigned frequency.The subnet is linked to an adjacent subnet through a relay or gateway node that is common to both subnets.
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on command relationships. ... Two types of CCDRs are geographic combatant commanders (GCCs) ... The four categories of support that a CCDR (ftp.rta.nato.int)
The relay node contains two or more radios, each tuned to a different subnet frequency.A verbal message received at the relay node from a sending node on one subnet is recorded in writing by a human operator, and then retransmitted verbally on the appropriate subnet to reach the destination addressee(s) on that subnet, if required.A gateway performs the same function for a data transmission, except that caching of the received transmission, and retransmission on the target subnet(s), are handled automatically by the gateway.3.3 COMBAT NET RADIO COMMThe discussion in this section is taken from .
Forward of battalion, communication occurs over line-of-sight (LOS) radios operating in the Very High Frequency (VHF) or Ultra High Frequency (UHF) bands.Most of these radios are vehicle-mounted, but man-portable versions are also employed.At the lowest echelon, such as an infantry section on foot engaged in urban warfare, soldiers may use short-range radios operating in the nges of 400 meters or less.UHF radios are used for medium-range LOS wireless communication from 400 meters to 15 kilometres.VHF Radios must be used where non-LOS communication beyond 15 kilometres is required.
Battalions are either mechanized battalions (two armoured companies, one infantry company) or infantry battalions (two infantry companies, one armoured company).A battle group is a battalion augmented with other assets (usually engineer or artillery asseARMY TACTICAL COMMAND, CONTROL AND COMMUNICATIONS ENVIRONMENT RTO-TR-IST-030
The vast majority of VHF combat net radios have base bandwidths of 16 kilobits per
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